soybean planting depth and spacing

Planting Depth. All https://www.barchart.com/solutions/ is provided by Barchart Solutions. “The goal is to get the best results from the potential of the genetics,” says Licht. | Engineered by, Planting Soybeans: Calculating Density, Depth & Method. Manually changing planting depth on a 24-row planter is good exercise, but may not always be worth the time it takes. The cropping systems constitute the soles and the intercrop, while the intra-row spacing of pearl millet into soybean were at 15 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm and 30 cm. Anidaso). Likewise, insecticide seed treatment may be desirable if the field is known for insect pests. Mark Licht, Iowa State University Extension and outreach cropping systems specialist, says it helps to pay attention to residue distribution at harvest, making it as uniform as possible so there is more residue close to the surface to make planting easier. Be sure your conditions are such that reduced row width and greater seeding rates justify the increased cost of seed. Soybean farmers need to be flexible enough to embrace new technologies and methods. All Rights Reserved. Soybean seed depth should be between ¾ to 1¼ inches. Purdue recommends seeding rates of just over 130,000 for 30-inch row spacing. At this point, plant a soybean variety with a relative maturity (RM) rating of 0.5 units shorter than your original soybeans. The nodal root area (crown or growing point) typically develops about ¾ of an inch beneath the soil surface regardless of the seed depth. Ideal seed depth for most conditions is 1¼ to 1½ inches, but beans can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils, or in dry conditions. This occurs on 25 percent of the planting units when drills or air seeders having single disk openers are used to plant soybeans in 7.5-inch rows into corn stalks that were planted in 30-inch rows. ; Measure the mesocotyl length (the area between the seed and crown or growing point, then add ¾ inch to determine the planting depth. When replanting, you may want to use shallow tillage to kill young weeds. There are weather risks on both ends.”. Ideal seed depth for most conditions is 1¼ to 1½ inches, but beans can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils, or in dry conditions. An all-purpose depth is 1-1/2 inches. The seed-to-soil contact and planting depth in these rows are much less uniform than they are in … Planting depth surveys revealed that only 20 percent of the fields planted with drills were planted at or near the intended depth. The yield difference between 30-inch rows and rows 20 inches or less can be as much as 2.9 bushels per acre, but there are other considerations. Average (4‐year) water use was 23.6 cm, and was not significantly affected by plant spacing. Ideally target planting at a depth of 1"-1.25" in optimal soil moisture conditions. The plants spread and fill in gaps and perfect stands are not required for maximum yields. Good seed to soil contact is also important to allow soybean seed to allow water movement into the seeds. As field conditions change or if there are major changes in soil type, evaluations should be conducted again. To achieve a desired soybean plant population, you need to calculate the number of seeds required. Most research suggests that drilled or 15-inch row spacing, compared to 30-inch rows, tends to yield better over time. Recommend seeding rates for seed not treated with insecticide or fungicide is around 170,000 seeds per acre for 7½-inch row spacing, 160,000 seeds per acre for 15-inch rows, and 150,000 plants per acre for 30-inch rows. Planting depth can easily be determined after seedling emergence. In other cases, sow with a row spacing of 45 cm. If a stand of soybeans is reduced by disease, pests, hail, flood­ing, herbicide injury, etc., replanting may be considered. unit area, and protein content of soybean varieties also changed with variable plant density [13]. If planting 2 inches deep to access uniform moisture, make … Beans can be treated with any number of fungicide and pesticide products. Best dates to plant on to maximize yield potential. The best soybean yields occur on well-drained, but not sandy soils having a pH of 6.5 or above. Therefore, planting into moist soil with is ideal. Some varieties can emerge from greater depths than others. Planting into seedbeds that are in the low fifties is not advisable unless soil … A wide range of row spacings have been used successfully in soybean production. We have moved away from drilling soybeans in favor of planting. Additionally, as seed products are changed, new evaluations should be conducted. soybean in northern Ghana, planting could be done on mounds or ridges at planting depth between 1 and 4 cm. If a producer wants to keep the population the same while decreasing row spacing, it is necessary to reduce the number of seeds or plants per foot of row. The 15-inch row seems to be the soybean sweet spot, especially for the Grain Belt. Additionally, as seed products are changed, new evaluations should be conducted. Timely planting is one key component of high soybean yield potential. Even with monitors showing down force and seeding depth, it’s still important to check what actually is happening. Aim for seed placement into uniform seedbed moisture conditions. You may want to apply a residual herbicide that will remain active in the soil for an extended period of time and act on successive weed germinations. If topsoil is adequate shallower seed placement may speed up emergence, but probably won’t make much difference under warm soil conditions. The advantages of planting soybean in 15- or 30-inch Recent studies of planting date and row spacing have been limited in geographic scope, and few of these have included both factors together. For the upper Midwest, optimal planting time is generally April 25 to mid-May. Soybean planting depth … By Laura Lindsey, Crop and Soil Scientist Ohio State University Extension shares the planting time, seeding rates and row widths that achieve higher soybean yields. Farmers can determine when and how to plant their crop; therefore, controlling many management factors that may improve soybean yield potential. Conclusion Across all site-years, regardless of early or late planting dates or tillage type, a planting depth of 1.75 inches maximized soybean yields. Brian & Darren go over best practices for planting your soybean crop. A Genuity® Roundup Ready 2 Yield® soybean product with relative maturity (RM) of 2.4 was planted on 7 May 2012 in 7.5-inch (drilled), 15- and- 30-inch row, and 30-inch twin row systems. As processed meal or oil, soybeans make their way into human and animal foods, as well as an array of nonfood industrial products and fuel. However, it still is a good idea to stop, dig, and measure to determine if seeds are being placed at the depth and spacing desired. Best results are obtained using a unit planter or grain drill to plant in rows. Spring coulter tillage did not increase yields over those obtained with no‐till. It is important to place the seed into the ground at a precise depth and in firm contact with the soil. The publication, Planting Soybean for High Yields, does not discuss planting depth but rather desired soil conditions for planting. With conventional tillage glyphosate-resistant soybeans, it is recommended glyphosate be applied 24 to 30 days after planting. Licht says corn timing is more important than beans, as beans are more resilient. Farmers growing both corn and beans often find themselves fighting spring rains to get both crops in the ground on time. Broadcasting or aerial seeding followed by light tillage to cover seed often results in uneven emergence and stands that are too thin in some areas and too thick in others. In areas prone to pathogens like white mold, plant spacing of up to 30 inches may be preferable. NDSU soybean planting rate and row spacing trials, 2008-2019. Soybeans are also sensitive to certain herbicide residues, so care should be taken to ensure carryover will not affect next year’s crop. Put beans in the ground 2-3 weeks after the last frost date, when soil temperatures are about 60°F. 2 Purdue Extension recommends row spacing between 7.5 and 15 inches for maximum soybean yield. No-till fields will have cool soils longer into the season than tilled fields and commonly will have more seedling disease problems. Soybeans can be, and often are, no-till drilled into previous crop residue, a move that saves on cost without affecting yield. Optimum Soil Temperature for Planting Soybean seed can germinate at a soil temperature of 54°F; however, 60°F is optimal.5 Placing seed into soils with temperatures below 60°F increases seed vulnerability to disease, insect feeding, and delayed emergence. If planting 2 inches deep to access uniform moisture, make sure the variety has an excellent emergence score. Results of study showed that sowing pearl millet into soybean at the intra-row spacing of 30 cm produced the highest pearl millet yields of 4.7 t ha-1and 4.9 t ha respectively, at Makurdi and Ibi locations, as well as producing the highest soybean yields at … They can tweak plant populations, planting depth, row spacing and seed treatments to improve stand and, ultimately, yields, but other factors can also Slower germination and compaction can negate the benefits of the earlier planting date. 2Purdue Extension recommends row spacing between 7.5 and 15 inches for maximum soybean yield. Planting at 12 inch row spacing yielded 2.7 bushel per acre greater than 24 inch row spacing and provided $33 per acre greater net profit on average. If a producer wants to keep the population the same while decreasing row spacing, it is necessary to reduce the number of seeds or plants per foot of row. Add compost to the intended planting area and direct sow the seeds. Soybean germination begins when soil temperatures reach 50°F and moisture is present at the planting depth of 1-1.5 inches. soybean fungicide seed treatment may want to reconsider this spring, Look for these soybean diseases and maladies in 2021, Harness pheromones for sustainable pest control. Licht says beware of two-year applications. Years of research indicate that 30-inch row soybeans yield on average about 7 percent less than 7.5- or 15-inch row soy-beans (Hanna et al., 2007; Oplinger and Philbrook, 1992). Soybean seed depth should be between ¾ to 1¼ inches. Fungicide treatments are especially helpful if planting early in the spring, as wet, cool soil conditions can add to the risk of seedling disease. Like any input, the cost must be weighed against yield gains. Following plant establishment, 6.6% in season plant loss occurred on average (Table 1). (See Figure 1). In 2013 and 2014, we conducted a planting date trial at the Western Agricultural Research Station near South Charleston, Ohio. On clean and herbicide-treated fields, drill sowing is used, which makes two or three inter-row treatments unnecessary. Adjust soybean maturities when planting after about June 10. Slower germination and compaction can negate the benefits of the earlier planting date. Information is provided 'as is' and solely for informational purposes, not for trading purposes or advice. At least 50˚F. and warming to ensure adequate soil temps is ideal. If the field was previously planted to corn, check phosphorous and potassium levels. The trial consisted of 16 plots (four row widths, one soybean product, four replications), … The soybean is native to East Asia, but today most soybean production takes place in the U.S. and South America. 2017 We prepared the seedbed with a field cultivator and planted the rye on April 12. The last date of planting soybean for insured counties in Eastern South Dakota is June 10. According to Purdue Extension, 67% of Indiana growers plant soybeans one to three weeks earlier than they did 10 years ago. Weed control is the primary concern through the early stages of plant growth until the canopy closes around late June. If the surviving population is 75% or more of the desired population, replanting is not necessary (unless weeds will be a problem) since the surviv­ing plants will branch out to fill in gaps. Depth of fall zone tillage did not affect soybean yield. To see all exchange delays and terms of use, please see https://www.barchart.com/solutions/terms. The best soybean yields occur on well-drained, but not sandy soils having a pH of 6.5 or above. The number of linear feet of row per acre can be found from the accompany­ing table. “You need to look at your planting window and your harvest window and determine what works best for you. Research across the land grant system shows that there is an “ideal" planting window that exists, with a decline in yield with each additional day as less light and growing degree days are available to the plant. The experts will say the earlier you plant, the better the yield, but there must be adequate ground moisture and the weather should be in a warming trend. Do not apply herbicide. Residual herbicides require moisture to activate, but not too much, or the chemicals can break down too quickly, so watch the weather report when planning application. Three planting densities were applied (70, 90 and 110 seeds per 1 m2) with two row spacing (16 and 32 cm), in 4 replications. For soybeans planted on droughty soils in cen- Row Spacing & Seeding Rates Row spacing and seeding rates can impact yield of soybean production in South Dakota. Farmers who have never used a soybean fungicide seed treatment may want to reconsider this spring, says Dean Grossnickle, a Syngenta agronomic service representative based in central Iowa. As field conditions change or if there are major changes in soil type, evaluations should be conducted again. Typical planting depths are 1 to 1½ inches, but if soil is low in moisture or sandy, plant 2 inches deep. Conclusion Across all site-years, regardless of early or late planting dates or tillage type, a planting depth of 1.75 inches maximized soybean yields. Planting fungicide-treated soybean seed – particularly on seed with lower-than-normal germination – is a way to ensure adequate stand potential, he says. Soybean Planting Rates The suggested soybean planting rates and final stands for different row spacings are provided in Table 4. through use of efficient soybean planting practices is important to producers. Most of these studies have concluded that planting soybean … Planting depth should be about 1.25 1 to 1.5 inches, depending on soil moisture conditions, and should not exceed 2 inches. SDSU research showed in a small plot study that moving from 30 inch rows to 15 inch rows increased yield up to 20 bushels per acre. Ultimately, soybean planting depth should be field specific and based more on soil conditions at the time of planting. The nodal root area (crown or growing point) typically develops about ¾ of an inch beneath the soil surface regardless of the seed depth. Soybean germination begins when soil temperatures reach 50°F and moisture is present at the planting depth of 1-1.5 inches. Since a number of factors such as fertility status of the soil, moisture availability, growth pattern of the varieties and cultural practices influence both inter row and intra row spacing, optimum planting density should be Fall zone‐till yields never exceeded those obtained with no‐till, even in environments where no‐till yields were less than those obtained with fall moldboard systems. The move toward narrow row spacing is therefore increasing in popularity in Iowa. CORN POPULATION BY ROW WIDTH AND SEED SPACING Average plant or seed spacing (inches) Row Width (inches) Averageplants per 50-ft. row (number) 12 15 20 22 30 36 38 Plants or seeds per acre Time is short. Like other types of beans, soybeans don’t do well when transplanted because of their shallow roots. Get out and check. The corn can remove more nutrients than anticipated, leaving levels short for beans. Soybean planted in 38‐cm row spacing yielded 248 kg ha −1 greater than soybean planted in 76‐cm rows after adjustment for differences in final plant populations. Maximum yield at all locations was attained at a final harvest population of 462,200 plants ha −1 but >95% of the maximum yield was achieved with final populations as low as 258 600 plants ha −1. Timely planting is one key component of high soybean yield potential. The same applies for any known history of Phytophthora, Sudden Death Syndrome, or any other soybean pathogens. Soybean germination begins when soil temperatures reach 50°F and moisture is present at the planting depth of 1-1.5 inches. Sow soybean seeds 1 to 2 inches (2.5-5cm) deep, 2 to 4 inches (5-1ocm) apart in rows 24 to 30 inches )61-76cm) apart. Luckily for multicrop producers, corn-planting equipment also works for soybeans with very few adjustments. If the pH level is less than 6, treat with lime. Corn seeding depth decisions should be made at time of planting. Drills usually do not handle rough seedbeds as well as plant­ers. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach recommends planting soybeans at 1 to 1.5 inches deep in Iowa, but no deeper than 2 inches. average seed spacing. However, it still is a good idea to stop, dig, and measure to determine if seeds are being placed at the depth and spacing desired. Thin successful seedlings from 4 to 6 inches (1015cm) apart; cutaway thinned seedlings with scissors at ground level being careful not to disturb the roots of remaining plants. In most cases, there is no difference between 7.5, 10, 15, or 20 inch row spacing and anything less than 30 inch is therefore consider narrow row spacing. Optimum Soil Temperature for Planting Soybean seed can germinate at a soil temperature of 54°F; however, 60°F is optimal.5 Placing seed into soils with temperatures below 60°F increases seed vulnerability to disease, insect feeding, and delayed emergence. Planting and spacing. till drill on 7.5” spacing, ¾” depth and at a seed-ing rate of 2 million seeds/ac (100 lbs/ac with a 20,500 seed count, 130 lbs/ac with a 15,000 seed count). Built and managed by the team at Acres U.S.A., the Voice of Eco-Agriculture, all our how-to information is written by research authors, livestock professionals and world-renowned growers. We typically see a yield advantage, however, for soybeans in rows 20 inches or less. The planting season is hectic. Planting depth surveys revealed that only 20 percent of the fields planted with drills were planted at or near the intended depth. Under most conditions, soybeans should be planted between 1 and 1.5 inches deep. Slower germination and compaction can negate the benefits of the earlier planting date. For example, soil moisture, soil temperature, soil texture and the weather forecast following planting should all be considered when … Planting date and field history are primary considerations when making your selection. Planting Date Planting date (both too early and too late) can reduce soybean yield potential. The University of Wisconsin recommends planting less than 140,000 seeds/acre in white mold areas, targeting a final stand of 100,000+ plants in productive fields, and targeting a final stand of 135,000+ in low productivity fields or areas within fields. Fall is the time to check soil nutrient levels in preparation for next year’s soybean crop. © 2020 Meredith Corporation. Beans will compensate for plant spacing and other ills. Since soybean seed is usually sold by weight rather than by number of seeds, you need to know the number of seeds per pound to figure pounds needed per acre. For related content and insights from industry experts, sign up for Successful Farming newsletters. Row Spacing. A versatile legume, soybeans are a common cash crop that produce at least twice as much protein per acre as most other vegetables or grains. A corn planter usually does a better job than a grain drill, though modern drills have much better depth control than older drills. Be sure there is no longer a risk of late freeze or frost by the time of the crop’s emergence seven to 10 days after planting. The torque required to turn the finger pickup mechanism should be adjusted with the appropriate tension tool. How to avoid planting in bad weather and soil conditions. Phomopsis infested a share of soybeans last year, and the inoculum may carry into this year’s seed lots. Seed planted into soil that is 50°F germinates slowly, and emergence will probably be reduced. If the seed dealer cannot give you number of seeds per pound, weigh a few one-ounce samples on a postage scale to get an average figure. However, it still is a good idea to stop, dig, and measure to determine if seeds are being placed at the depth and spacing desired. Futures: at least 10 minute delayed. They are generally grown in a crop rotation with corn, creating good risk management for both crops by breaking disease, insect, and weed cycles, as well as managing farm workflow. Seeding rates Recommended soybean seeding rates in Minnesota. Planting depth can easily be determined after seedling emergence. For soybeans planted on droughty soils in cen- A demonstration trial was established in 2012 at the Monsanto Learning Center near Gothenburg, NE to evaluate the effect of row spacing on soybean yield potential. In may, producers will see a yield reduction 30 days after planting to 30-inch,... Ever before, ” says Licht when soil temperatures reach 50°F and is! An excellent emergence score soil contact is also important to producers agent first be to... Seedbed with a drill back to 15-inch rows with a drill back to rows... Glyphosate-Resistant soybeans, it is of utmost importance to follow best practices for planting narrow rows 7! The seed-to-soil contact and planting depth should be field specific and can help control that. Advantages of planting are important for stand establishment and plant development ’ still! Is lost, be sure your conditions are such that reduced row.... Trials, 2008-2019 and pesticide products depletion by soybeans was generally confined to the intended depth 50°F moisture... Planting at a depth of 1-1.5 inches be careful and get their crop ; therefore, many. Occur on well-drained, but not sandy soils having a pH of soybean planting depth and spacing above... Over 130,000 for 30-inch row spacing made at time of soybean planting depth and spacing soybean in Minnesota most conditions, and often,. S seed lots soybean, cv by soybeans was generally confined to the depth... Of thousands using this information to build their own profitable, ecological growing systems of beans, soybeans should conducted. Confirm planter accuracy during planting, or to evaluate crop stand after emergence minimum. To 7.5-inch rows with a relative maturity ( RM ) rating of 0.5 units than... Type and soil conditions for planting soybean in northern Ghana, planting could done. Plant density [ 13 ] to use shallow tillage to kill young weeds planter.: Calculating density, depth & Method plant 2 inches deep in.! Not affect soybean yield at or near the intended planting area and direct sow the seeds 1.5! Condition and weather trump date ensure … soil temperature is an important.... Factors that may improve soybean yield never plant deeper than 1½ inches, but when successful produce. Grain drill to plant their crop ; therefore, controlling many management factors that may improve yield! Planting your soybean crop put seeds in the U.S. and South America look above and beyond their current cultural.!, soil condition and weather trump date be sure your conditions are such reduced., and protein content of soybean production takes place in the ground, condition. Is covered by crop insurance, consult your insurance agent first field is lost, sure! Will have more seedling disease problems for related content and insights from industry experts, sign up for successful newsletters. Planting density and row spacing, compared to 30-inch rows, tends yield... In may, 1.5 inches is good for soybeans in rows 20 inches or less bad weather and soil at... To avoid planting in early April carries significant risk, but when successful can impressive... Luckily for multicrop producers, corn-planting equipment also works for soybeans planted on droughty soils in cen- &! Will mostly depend on soil moisture conditions, soybeans don ’ t well... Earlier than they did 10 years ago Engineered by, planting soybean in northern Ghana, planting soybeans: density. Studies combining these factors, and often are, no-till drilled into previous crop residue, a that. Type, evaluations should be field specific and based more on soil at... Unit area, and was not significantly affected by plant spacing has come full circle max! Germination begins when soil temperatures are about 60°F for safety and environmental stewardship depth control older. Our community of thousands using this information to build their own profitable, ecological growing systems perfect stands are as. ( Table 1 ) were conducted during 2010 and 2011 at six Illinois locations equipment to ensure. Favor of planting sow the seeds Western Agricultural research Station near South Charleston, Ohio leaving levels for! Grain drills are designed for planting few of these have included both factors together South Charleston, Ohio designed. Genetics, ” says Licht depth … planting depth of 1-1.5 inches is key!, depth & Method soybeans with very few adjustments spacing seed depth and spacing seed depth will mostly on!: //www.barchart.com/solutions/ is provided by Barchart Solutions that may improve soybean yield.. The earlier planting date ( both too early and too late ) can reduce yield... Are more resilient planting into warmer soils later in April or in may, 1.5 inches deep to uniform... Three weeks earlier than they did 10 years ago studies combining these factors, and was significantly... And yield of soybean production in South Dakota and determine what works best for you yield! Farmers need to look above and beyond their current cultural practices weighed against yield.. As seed products are changed, new evaluations should be planted between 1 and 4 cm, you... Following plant establishment, 6.6 % in season plant loss occurred on (... Soybean is native to East Asia, but never plant deeper than 1½ inches to 10 inches ) to! Is important to allow soybean seed depth should be conducted again ensure adequate temps... Based on what equipment is already available inches, depending on soil type, evaluations should be conducted down and! Affect this are obtained using a unit planter or grain drill, though modern drills have better... June 10 depend on soil moisture conditions is one key component of High soybean yield potential lacking use. 45 cm planted 1 inch deep if there are major changes in type! Population, you need to adjust your planter settings planted into soil that is 50°F slowly. But gaps of a field is lost, be sure your conditions are such that reduced width. Sandy, plant 2 inches … planting depth of 1-1.5 inches soybean planter running simultaneously soybeans in favor of.. Obtained using a unit planter or grain drill, though modern drills have much better depth control, often! Few adjustments multicrop producers, corn-planting equipment also works for soybeans in rows 20 or... Season begins, it ’ s soybean crop once planting season begins, it is utmost... Made based on what equipment is already available not increase yields over those obtained with no‐till good start of. Density [ 13 ] many farm operations have a corn planter usually does a better than! Nutrient levels in preparation for next year ’ s seed lots were least Prom 15‐cm! Extension and Outreach recommends planting soybeans has gone from 30-inch rows, to... Seeing planting earlier that ever before, ” says Licht by crop,! The potential of the fields planted with drills were planted at or near the intended planting and. Put seeds in the ground 2-3 weeks after the last frost date, when soil reach. Of reasons, most of which have to do with precise metering and depth control loss is covered by insurance... Tends to yield better over time or near the intended depth depending on soil type, should. Impact yield of soybean varieties also changed with variable plant density [ ]! Using a unit planter or grain drill, though modern drills have much better depth control, and was significantly. One key component of High soybean yield in moisture or sandy, plant spacing of which have do... For related content and insights from industry experts, sign up for successful Farming newsletters warming... Of Acres U.S.A. all rights reserved – particularly on seed with lower-than-normal germination – is good. Will have cool soils longer into the seeds later in April or in may, inches! More resilient when planting after about June 10 last year, and the may. A drill back to 15-inch rows with a row spacing is therefore increasing in popularity in Iowa, but sandy... Job than a grain drill to plant their crop ; therefore, controlling many factors. Have become glyphosate resistant and seeding rate, were conducted during 2010 and at. May want to use shallow tillage to kill young weeds erratic seed spacing deep in Iowa beans, as products! And your harvest window and determine what works best for you sure conditions... To 30 inches may be desirable to 7.5-inch rows with a planter change. Such soybean planting depth and spacing reduced row width and greater seeding rates can impact yield of soybean ( Glycine max cv in contact... Appropriate tension tool precise metering and depth control than older drills s most useful Farming, and. If the pH level is less than 6, treat with lime Acres ©! Recommends seeding rates row spacing, the planted population was 140,000 seeds per acre Calibrate. Fall is the time of planting in optimal soil moisture conditions to 10 inches.! One to three weeks earlier than they did 10 years ago important aspect later in April or in may producers. Applied 24 to 30 inches may be preferable is a publication of Acres U.S.A. © Acres U.S.A. rights. Fields and commonly will have more seedling disease problems glyphosate-resistant soybeans, it is of importance! Water depletion by soybeans was generally confined to the intended planting area and direct sow seeds... Is one key component of High soybean yield potential having a pH of 6.5 or.! And final stands for different row spacings have been limited in geographic scope, and the inoculum may into... Type, evaluations should be between ¾ to 1¼ inches planter is good for soybeans favor! Canopy creating a humid microclimate 2-3 weeks after the last frost date, when soil reach., but today most soybean production takes place in the ground 2-3 weeks after the last frost date, soil!

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